Orthognathic Surgery is a corrective surgery for changing the shape of the face. As the definition of beauty has changed over the centuries, people have started to explore surgical and non-surgical augmentation procedures in order to look more appealing. One of the most important parameters for defining beauty in a person is the symmetry of the face. While certain face structures are inherently considered more attractive, others are not. Most common classification of face shape or form has seven different categories which are –
- Round shaped face: Length and width of the face is identical with that of temples, cheekbones and jawline being same in dimension; smooth and rounded features.
- Heart shaped face: In this type, the face is widest at the temples and gets narrowed down as it reaches the skin.
- Oblong face: The length of the face is more than one and a half times the face width.
- Square shaped face: Length and width of the face is equal with temples, cheekbones and jawline being same in dimension; sharp and angular features.
- Diamond shaped face: The face is widest along cheekbones, jawline and temples are narrow.
- Triangle shaped face: Narrow temple and eye-line, wider cheeks and jaw.
- Oval shaped face: Length of the face is one and a half times the width of the face across cheeks.
While the oval shaped face is considered most balanced and beautiful in women, square shaped face is considered a mark of handsomeness in men. But since everyone can’t have the same genetic makeup to have these dimensions, many people resort to orthognathic surgery that can help correct their jaw structure and cosmetically improve the aesthetic appeal of their face. Conventionally, orthognathic surgery found application in correction of jaw and face structure; effectively treating conditions like sleep apnea, TMJ (temporo mandibular joint) disorders, malocclusion problems and other orthodontic problems. However, in the past few years, cosmetic applications of orthognathic procedures have been extensively explored. In addition to achieving better balance of face form, aesthetic problems like toothy smiles, gummy smiles, deficient chin, underbite, overbite and crossbite can be corrected with orthognathic procedures. Surgical procedures may be conducted on the lower jaw, upper jaw or both jaws depending upon the type of correction required. Most sought out cosmetic orthognathic procedures are –
- Genioplasty: Commonly known as chin surgery or chin repositioning, genioplasty is a surgical procedure wherein problems like receding chin, excessive chin and misalignment of chin are corrected. In case of receding or weak chin, chin implants are commonly used to enhance the appearance of the chin and make the face more balanced. In case of excessive or misaligned chin, the bone supporting the chin is repositioned. The incision for insertion of implants or repositioning is made either under the upper lip or under the chin. Genioplasty procedures are also at time clubbed with rhinoplasty procedures, neck reduction and laser skin surfacing procedures to get best results.
- Le Fort Type 1: This is the most commonly conducted surgical procedure for correcting upper jaw alignment and structure. The upper jaw or maxilla is removed from its original position and reinserted in its modified position with the help of titanium screws and plates. Le fort type 1 osteotomy procedures can move the maxilla upward, downward, forward and at times even backward.
- Le Fort Type 3: This cosmetic procedure involves correction and repositioning of mid-face, including the upper jaw, nose and cheeks. Cosmetic incisions are made inside the mouth, below the lower eyelids and ear to ear incision of nose. The scalp is also raised forward to get past the nasal bone, with separation of sensory nerves to the forehead and bony canals. This is a major surgical procedure and can also involve bone grafting, blood transfusions and suction drains.
- Bimaxillary osteotomy: This is a complex orthognathic procedure which requires bone grafting, blood transfusion and overnight monitoring by medical professionals. Bone graft material can be harvested from chin or lower jaw to ensure that the maxilla bone heals and proper union across bone cuts happens. This procedure is known to give exceptionally outstanding results and create a much more enhanced facial aesthetics.
- Mandibular Sagittal Split osteotomy:As the name suggests, this orthognathic procedure is designed to correct and reposition the mandible or lower jaw. Overbite and underbite is effectively corrected through the Sagittal split osteotomy. The lower jaw is cut and chiselled to move forward or backward and post the operative procedure, the jaw is wired shut for 4-5 weeks for complete healing.
A marked change in facial structure and overall appearance can be observed once a person recovers from orthognathic surgical procedures. Most of these procedures are complicated and are required to be given special medical attention even after the surgery. Hence, it is best to seek medical consultation from trained orthognathic surgeons and osteotomy specialists. A well planned orthognathic procedure can help you achieve your best possible face shape and look your best.
Jaw Correction Surgery
The jaw represents the strength of the face. Jaw correction surgery can alter the shape of the face and the entire image that your face projects. Jaw correction surgery is also known as orthognathic surgery. Jaw correction surgery is performed by an oral and maxillofacial surgeon. Jaw correction surgery also helps in correcting various functional problems related to the jaws and teeth.
Jaw correction surgery, performed using orthognathic surgery, can help correct various conditions such as misalignment of the teeth, difficult in chewing or swallowing. Jaw correction surgery help put to right the chronic jaw pain and the headaches associated with it. Jaw correction surgery also helps correct the excessive wear of the teeth and the open bite. Jaw correction surgery can also help correct various facial deformities such as non-symmetry of the face, facial injuries due injury to the jaw, and birth defects. Jaw correction surgery can also help the patient get rid of chronic mouth breathing, sleep apnea and receding or protruding jaw and chin.
Different types of jaw implants are used in jaw correction surgeries to produce the desired result. These include lateral width jaw implants which are used in jaw correction surgery to increase the width of the jaw. Vertical lengthening jaw implants are used to increase the height of the jaw angle and it is used in conjunction with lateral jaw implants to give the complete look. Wrap around jaw implants are the modern day jaw implants used in jaw correction surgeries. Dr. Debraj Shome also uses custom made jaw implants for jaw correction surgeries. Dr Debraj Shome uses 3 D scan images for creating top of the class custom made jaw implants which fit well over the curve of the jaw.
Jaw correction surgeries are used along with chin and therefore it helps in enhancing the entire image of the face and projection a youthful appearance.
Dr. Debraj Shome is amongst the most experienced facial plastic surgeons in the world, with many thousand facial surgery procedures performed in his career. Dr. Shome is co founder of The Esthetic Clinics ®, a chain of centers located in Mumbai, India.